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Boxes 1–4, with arrow pointing to box 5 in the centre. box 1: (Suppliers), LOW – MEDIUM. Dependent on a local/regional pool of suitably trained and experienced linguists. box 2: (Substitute products). HIGH. Rapid development and keen marketing of commercial online language courses. box 3: (Customers) HIGH. Businesses could decide to forego individualised instruction and choose the cheaper option of self-directed online learning Low chances of repeat business. Box 4: (Threat of new entrants) MEDIUM–HIGH. Others, including current employees, could set up similar businesses. Box 5: (Existing competitors) MEDIUM. Rivalry from other language-service businesses, but also the possibility for collaboration.

 2.7 Competitive advantage