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This is a colour map of Alexandria. A scale and compass are provided. North is approximately towards the top right-hand corner. Water is shown in blue, land is shown in green and the city is shown in white.

A two kilometre wide strip of land is shown running northeast-southwest across the centre of the map. The sea is shown above the strip of land. Lake Mareotis fills the bottom of the map.

Three pieces of land jut out into the sea along the western coast in the centre of the map. They increase in size towards the north. The most northerly is marked Cape Lochias. It curves around to the west forming a large natural harbour with several bays. The island of Pharos is situated off the coast. Its north-eastern coastline mirrors the curve of the mainland forming a large protected bowl-shaped harbour marked Great Harbour. The Pharos Lighthouse is shown on the most northerly point of the island. There are a few small islands strung along the entrance to the harbour between the lighthouse and Cape Lochias.

A long straight man-made causeway joins the centre of the Island of Pharos to the city on the mainland opposite. The Great Harbour can be seen to the right of the causeway and the Western Harbour to the left.

The city is focused on the sea. It occupies the central part of the map and includes both the harbours and Cape Lochias. It is approximately five kilometres long. Land is shown to three sides of the map. The city does not spread as far as Lake Mareotis shown at the bottom of the map but stops about half a kilometre from the shoreline. The Canal of Alexandria is shown running in the strip of land between the city and Lake Mareotis. It follows the shoreline before changing course and running up to the Western Harbour just inside the city. It reaches the coast between the causeway and the Moon Gate which can be seen near the city limits towards the left.

The city is laid out in a grid. The lines are shown running horizontally and vertically across the map. The Palace Quarter occupies the central area on the coast. Most of the monuments marked on the map are located south of the palace. From north to south these are: Cleopatra’s Needles; Caesareum; Theatre Seats; Sun Gate, Doric Stoa; Imperial Baths; Temple of Isis, Serapis, Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe; (Kom el-Dikka); Small theatre; Urban Villas; Serapeum; Moon Gate: Diocletian’s Column and in the far south, Lageion.

Two roads are marked on the map. Canopic Street (Sharia el-Horreya) runs horizontally across the map between the Sun Gate on the right eastern end and the Moon Gate on the left western end of the city. Sharia Nabi Danial crosses Canopic Street near the Urban Villas.

 2.1 Assessing the evidence