7.3 In-text citation
An in-text citation of a book consists of:
- the surname of the author
- the date when the work was published
- the page number where the information and ideas can be found.
This information should be placed within brackets at an appropriate place within a sentence that contains information taken from the book. It can be included in different ways, as shown in the following examples:
According to Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) ‘the influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’.
The same point made by Vygotsky could be conveyed by paraphrasing his words:
Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) argued that the way children develop is significantly affected by play.
Alternatively, the acknowledgement can be added after paraphrased or quoted text:
‘The influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’ (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).
The way children develop is significantly affected by play (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).