English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

English: skills for learning

7.3 In-text citation

An in-text citation of a book consists of:

  • the surname of the author
  • the date when the work was published
  • the page number where the information and ideas can be found.

This information should be placed within brackets at an appropriate place within a sentence that contains information taken from the book. It can be included in different ways, as shown in the following examples:

According to Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) ‘the influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’.

The same point made by Vygotsky could be conveyed by paraphrasing his words:

Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) argued that the way children develop is significantly affected by play.

Alternatively, the acknowledgement can be added after paraphrased or quoted text:

‘The influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’ (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).

The way children develop is significantly affected by play (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).


Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371