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A map of the Arctic with a line of longitude from 180 degrees in the upper left to 0 degrees in the lower right. This is crossed at right-angles at the North Pole by the 90 degrees west to 90 degrees east line of longitude. Circular lines of latitude are shown at 70 degrees north and 80 degrees north. Major land masses around the Arctic Ocean are marked with Siberia in the upper left, then moving anticlockwise via Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Svalbard (opposite Siberia). Sea areas are also marked with the Chukchi Sea adjacent to Siberia, then moving anticlockwise via the Beaufort Sea, Fram Strait, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Laptev Sea (bordering the Chuckchi Sea). Two major ice flows are shown:

  1. The Beaufort Gyre is a clockwise flow centred at approximately 80 degrees north, 140 degrees west, north of Alaska. Between the Gyre and Alaska there is also linear flow westwards to the Chukchi Sea.
  2. The Transpolar drift stream is a linear flow beginning in the Laptev Sea passing near the North Pole and continuing to the Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard.

There are also local flows shown with smaller arrows, with length indicating strength of flow. The strongest flow begins in the Beaufort Sea, passing around the Beaufort Gyre and joining the Transpolar drift stream.

 4.6 The frozen seas