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(a) This photo shows a rough sea; dark blue up to the horizon, but lighter blue/white in the foreground. Making up this lighter area there are rounded white lumps of ice at or very close to the surface.

(b) This photo looks down onto a small area of calm sea surface and shows a few dozen rounded lumps of ice floating in the water. The lumps are fairly well packed together and most probably touch each other just below the surface.

(c) This photo shows a sunny view across pack ice and includes the horizon and blue sky. In the foreground there are about a dozen flat white sheets of pack ice in close contact with one another. There are dark wedges of sea between the sheets where they don't touch. The edges of each area of pack ice appear crumpled where they have been in contact with one another. Further sheets are visible in the distance off to the horizon.

(d) This photo shows two areas of white pack ice under grey skies; one running across the middle of the photo up to the horizon, and one confined to the bottom right-hand corner. Between these two sheets is a channel of darker grey/brown water, the width of which reduces into the distance from bottom left to middle right. In the foreground, polygonal lines on the surface of the water suggest that thin ice is forming.

 4.6 The frozen seas