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Figure 2: Top left: Getty Images; Top right: Getty Images; Bottom left: Patti McConville/Getty Images; bottom right: WPA Pool/Getty Images.
Figure 3: Lana Rinck/Shutterstock.com.
Figure 4: Yury Zap/Shutterstock.com.
Figure 5: Aysezqic meli/Shutterstock.com.
Box 1: extract adapted from: Arnstein, S. (1969) ‘A ladder of participation in the USA’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 216–2.
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