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A map showing the east of China, eastern Russia, part of Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. China is shown in pink and all other countries are shown in light green. The map also shows two groups of disputed islands key to Chinese security policy: the Spratly Islands and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The Spratly Islands are off the coasts of the Philippines, Malaysia and southern Vietnam. The Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands are to the east of mainland China, slightly to the north of Taipei in the East China Sea.

 4.5 Territorial disputes