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A map showing the east of China, Eastern Russia, part of Mongolia, North and South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. China is shown in pink and all other countries are shown in light green.

The map identifies two ‘island chains’ key to Chinese security policy. The first, shown by a broken red line, lies to the south of China and runs from the Aleutian Islands to Borneo. It takes in the disputed territory of Taiwan, the Spratly Islands (South of Vietnam) and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands (North of Taiwan). The contested territory of Okinawa (currently held by Japan) is shown as a purple dot.

The second island chain lies to the east of China and runs from Japan to Papua New Guinea. It runs past the contested island of Guam, which is currently held by the United States, and is also shown on the map as a purple dot. The map is drawn to a scale of 2 cm to 500 miles.

 2 China and the United States in the twenty-first century