The IoT is made up of a loose collection of disparate, use-specific networks. The M2M connection is a network type that is unique to the IoT.
Protocols refer to the rules of communication that devices use and are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. A group of inter-related protocols is called a protocol suite, which helps ensure interoperability between network devices.
Cloud computing is a type of client-server model in which servers and services are dispersed all over the globe in distributed data centres. Fog computing extends cloud computing and services to the edge of the network.
End devices, sensors, RFID tags, and actuators can use controllers that are in the fog. This frees up bandwidth in the network for other uses. These controllers can use Cisco IOx. These IP-enabled controllers are able to forward information across an IP network, and allow individuals to access the controller remotely. Some controllers are able to consolidate information from multiple sensors or perform basic analysis of data received.
Infrastructure devices are primarily responsible for moving data between the controller devices and other end devices across the network.
Sensors must be told what data to capture and where to send that data. A controller must be programmed to receive that data and decide if it should relay a message to another device.
All of these functions rely on programs. A computer program is a set of instructions given to a computer, to be executed in a specific order. Because computers do not speak human languages, computer programming languages were created. These languages allow humans to write instructions in a way that computers can understand.