An introduction to geology
An introduction to geology

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

An introduction to geology

2.15 Under ancient seas

The second main type of ore for copper is submarine sulphide deposit like that formed at Parys Mountain.

Described image
Figure 2.17 Parys Mountain

The Parys Mountain metal deposits on Anglesey in North Wales have been mined for almost 4000 years, but the formation of the deposits date back much, much further, to the Ordovician, over 443 million years ago. At that time, the area that we now call Anglesey was underwater, part of an ancient ocean called Iapetus, and south of the equator.

The deposits that now make up the ores at Parys, and at many copper deposits worldwide, were produced in volcanoes. But not the sort of volcano you might automatically think of – subsea volcanoes.

Most of the world’s volcanoes aren’t the cone shaped mountains with lava bursting out of them that you might imagine. Most volcanoes are under the oceans, in long ridges which span the globe.

These volcanoes make new oceanic crust at ‘spreading centres’ distributed (mostly) from the centre of the world oceans. These are the constructive plate margins and where all new sea floor is made.

Described image
Figure 2.18 Submarine volcanoes map
Described image
Figure 2.19 World ocean floor map by Tharp and Heezen, 1977

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371