This figure comprises a bar graph showing the percentage of E. coli isolates exhibiting an ESBL phenotype in the UK between 2002 and 2016. The horizontal axis is labelled year and is marked from 2002 to 2016 in 1-year intervals, 2015 is missing. The vertical axis is labelled isolates (%) and is marked from 0 to 14 in intervals of 2. The blue bars represent CTX-M expressing E. coli isolates. The orange bars represent E. coli isolates expressing other ESBLs. In all cases except 2002 the blue bars are larger than the orange bars.

 4 Case study: resistance to cephalosporins