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This is a colour-coded bar graph. The horizontal axis represents three specific time periods: 1963, 1971 and 1978. The vertical axis represents a percentage of participants (white Americans). The scale runs from zero percent at the bottom to 70 percent at the top. There are three groups of four ‘bars’ which represent each of the three years. From left to right:

The green bar represents the percentage of white Americans who attribute the stereotype of ‘Unambitious’ towards black Americans.

The blue bar represents the percentage of white Americans who attribute the stereotype of ‘Criminal’ towards black Americans.

The orange/yellow bar represents the percentage of white Americans who attribute the stereotype of ‘Less intelligent’ towards black Americans.

The red bar represents the percentage of white Americans who attribute the stereotype of ‘Inferior’ towards black Americans.

The left-hand group of bars shows that in 1963 the stereotype:

‘Unambitious’ was attributed by 67%

‘Criminal’ by 35%

‘Less intelligent’ by 39%

‘Inferior’ by 31%

The middle group of bars shows that in 1971 the stereotype:

‘Unambitious’ was attributed by 52%

‘Criminal’ by 27%

‘Less intelligent’ by 37%

‘Inferior’ by 22%

The right-hand group of bars shows that in 1978 the stereotype:

‘Unambitious’ was attributed by 49%

‘Criminal’ by 29%

‘Less intelligent’ by 26%

‘Inferior’ by 16%

(All percentages are estimates +/− 2%)

 1.1 Explicit and implicit prejudice