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Pink silhouette of the head and neck of a human. The mouth (with the tongue) and the nasal cavities (with a nostril) proceed to the pharynx in the neck; this leads to the oesophagus, all coloured pink. From the top of the oesophagus proceeds the trachea (coloured yellow) with darker yellow cartilage rings stiffening and supporting it; at the top of the trachea is shown the box-like larynx in pale yellow. Above the larynx is a flap, hinged at the front – this is the epiglottis.

 1.1.1 Upper respiratory tract