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The graphs show the decline in reported cases of (a) MRSA bacteraemia and (b) Clostridium difficile infection over the four-year period. In both parts of the figure, the horizontal time axis is marked in quarters (3-month periods) from April–June 2007 until January–March 2011. The vertical axes are labelled reported cases: in (a), the axis is marked from zero to 1400 at intervals of 200; and in (b), the axis is marked from zero to 18 000 at intervals of 2000. The decline in reported cases of both infections was greatest between 2007 and 2009, with a smaller rate of decline between 2009 and 2011. MRSA cases fell from 1300 in April–June 2007 to 500 in April–June 2009 and then to 350 in Jan–March 2011. Clostridium difficile cases fell from 17 000 in April–June 2007 to 7000 in April–June 2009 and then to just under 5000 in Jan–March 2011.

 4.2.2 Institutional hygiene and healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs)