Diabetes care
Diabetes care

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Diabetes care

8 本单元问题

问题1

用几句话描述如何诊断糖尿病

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Answer

糖尿病一般通过检测血糖浓度得到诊断。如果随机抽取的血浆中的葡萄糖值大于或等于11.1mmol/l,并且有症状出现,那么此人患有糖尿病。如果病人没有症状,那么,要诊断病情则需要在2次不同的测试下得出2次不正常的血浆葡萄糖值。空腹情况下测试的血浆葡萄糖值超过或等于7.0mmol/l也可以诊断糖尿病。个别情况下,口服糖耐量测试也可以用来诊断糖尿病。

糖尿病属于哪种类型是通过临床症状来确认的。I型糖尿病患者在确诊时往往体重大幅下降,尿液中含酮。相反,II型糖尿病患者的症状一般没有那么明显,即便是体内血浆葡萄糖值升高了,也一般不容易察觉患病。II型糖尿病患者的尿液中很少含酮。夜间口渴或尿频不光是由糖尿病引起的,也与年纪增大有关。

问题2

A

用以下参照标准来比较I型和II型糖尿病的异同:

患病年龄:

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Answer

I型糖尿病: 可出现在任何年龄段,但儿童和年轻人中比较常见.

II型糖尿病: 更常见于老年人群,但也可出现在年轻人群中.

B

治疗:

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Answer

I型糖尿病: 胰岛素是仅有的治疗方法.

II型糖尿病: 仅改善饮食,饮食加服药以及/或胰岛素注射.

C

有无尿酮:

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Answer

I型糖尿病: 血糖值升高时尿液中出现酮.

II型糖尿病: 酮不常见.

D

病因:

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Answer

I型糖尿病: 胰岛素完全缺乏.

II型糖尿病: 胰岛素不足以及/或细胞拒绝接受胰岛素.

问题3

在糖尿病产生的过程中,哪一种激素最重要?简单地描述其在Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型糖尿病中的作用.

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Answer

胰岛素对糖尿病的发展起最重要的作用。

I型糖尿病患者体内完全不生产胰岛素。他们必须依靠注射胰岛素来降低血糖浓度。他们通过胰岛素注射保持血糖浓度正常。

II型糖尿病患者虽然体内生产胰岛素,但是生产的量不足以把血糖值降低到正常水平,而且他们的身体很可能拒绝接受胰岛素。

问题4

如何从父母身上遗传糖尿病?

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Answer

你有可能仅从父母一方继承变异的基因,即便是另一方的基因是正常的,你仍然会患糖尿病。这种叫做常染色体控制继承。与此不同,隐性基因继承则需要孩子从父母双方继承同样的变异的基因。糖尿病被看作是一种多因素引发的疾病,很多不同的基因都可能是非常重要的。

问题 5

哪些因素会增加某人患II型糖尿病的风险?

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Answer

以下因素对决定某人患糖尿病的风险起重要作用:

  • 民族群体
  • 超重
  • 缺少锻炼
  • 糖尿病家族史
  • 年龄增大
  • 以前的妊娠期糖尿病

问题 6

解释超重的定义以及身体体重指数的计算方法。

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Answer

超重是指身体体重指数大副超标,并已达到可能严重危害身体健康的程度。

身体体重指数(BMI)显示成人的体重是否与其身高保持健康的比例。用体重(公斤)除以身高(米)与身高的乘积,得出BMI值:

BMI= 体重 (公斤)/ 身高x 身高 (平方米)体重指数超过30公斤/平方米就是超重。

SK120_3

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