Machines, minds and computers
Machines, minds and computers

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

4.1.3 Principle of Automation

Whenever the legal moves of a formal system are fully determined by algorithms, then that system can be automated.

Source: Haugeland, Artificial Intelligence: The very idea (1985)

A serious problem arises in automatic formal systems. At each state of the system the algorithm must by itself find a legal move (or decide that no move is possible). However, in many formal systems, for any particular state there is often a large number of moves, all perfectly legal, to choose from. Such systems are known as non-deterministic, as opposed to deterministic systems, where only one legal move is available in each state (and which would thus make absolutely rotten games). Chess is a perfect example of a non-deterministic formal system. Glance back at Figure 12. Assuming it is white's turn to move, how many legal moves are available? Don't bother to count them yourself; I've done it for you. Unless I've miscounted, an automated system playing white would have to choose between 51 legal moves at that point. If you are a chess player yourself, you'll be able to see straight away that many of them are immediately suicidal, others merely pointless. But which is the best move, and how is it to be selected?

A very brief answer to this question is that the selection algorithm must incorporate heuristics for choosing the best move. A heuristic means, roughly, ‘a rule of thumb’ or ‘a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem’.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371