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Invention and innovation: An introduction
Invention and innovation: An introduction

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The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material within this unit:

Course image: liz west [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Licence.

Figures 1 and 64 © DIY Picture Library.

Figure 2 Courtesy of Dyson (UK) Ltd.

Figures 4 and 70 ©John Frost Historical Newspapers.

Figures 4, 5(l), 18, 35, 45, 75 Richard Hearne/ Open University.

Figures 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), 5(d), 5(e), 5(f), 5(g), 5(j), 8, 16, 27, 63, 67, 68, 69, 76 ©The Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library.

Figure 5(h) Source unknown

Figure 5(i) © Sam Hallas

Figure 5(k) P.M. Northwood/Northwood Images

Figures 9, 10, 59 E. Taylor/Open University

Figure 7 Courtesy of Mike Fletcher – Telephones UK

Figures 11, 12, 15 © US Dept of the Interior, National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site

Figures 13, 14, 17, 53 © The Smithsonian Institute.

Figure 19 © Courtesy of Philips Lighting BV.

Figure 20 Patent Specifications 1267032 ‘Workbench’, © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Figure 21(a) © Hulton Archive/Getty Images.

Figure 21(b) © Corbis/Hulton Deutsch Collection.

Figure 22 © Alexis Rosenfield/Science Photo Library.

Figure 23 (e) Paul Shambroom/Science Photo Library.

Figure 23 (c) © BSIP Laurent/Science Photo Library.

Figure 23 (b) © Philippe Plailly/Eurelios/Science Photo Library.

Figure 23 (a) © Antonia Reeve/Science Photo Library.

Figure 23 (d) © Rosenfeld Images Ltd/Science Photo Library.

Figure 25 Courtesy of the Hovercraft Museum Trust.

Figure 26 Courtesy of Hovercraft Consultants Ltd.

Figure 28 © Martin Dohrn/Science Photo Library.

Figure 29 © Courtesy of Textron Systems, Marine & Land Operations.

Figure 30 © Dyson (UK) Ltd.

Figure 31 © Rank Xerox (UK) Ltd.

Figures 32 and 33 From: S. van Dulken, ‘Inventing the 20th Century’, The British Library Board, London 2002.

Figures 34(a) and 34(b) Courtesy of Reflecto Ltd.

Figure 36 © Torben Lenau/Nitinol Devices & Components Inc.

Figure 37 © Courtesy of Omron Electronics Ltd.

Figure 39 © David Parker/Science Photo Library.

Figure 40 Courtesy of Ford of Britain.

Figure 41 © Courtesy of EvoBus (UK) Ltd.

Figure 43 © Flymo (UK) Ltd.

Figure 44 Courtesy of Renault (UK) Limited.

Figures 46 and 47 © Eye of Science/Science Photo Library.

Figure 48 Crown copyright, reproduced with permission from the Controller HMSO.

Figure 49 Courtesy of the Raytheon Company.

Figure 50 US Dept of the Interior, National Parks Service, Edison National Historic Site.

Figure 52 © Sony (UK) Ltd.

Figure 54 US Patent 2,040,248, May 12, 1936, Dvorak, A. et al., ‘‘Typewriter Keyboard’’.

Figure 56 © TRL Ltd. / Science Photo Library.

Figure 57 Rothwell, R. (1992) ‘Developments towards the fifth generation model of innovation’, Technology Analysis and Strategy Management, Carfax Publishing Company.

Figure 58 © Punch Cartoon Library.

Figures 70 and 71 © Ronald Gelatt. From R. Gelatt, ‘The Fabulous Phonograph’, 2nd edn, Cassell & Co. Ltd. 1977.

Figure 62 © John Frost Newspaper Service.

Figure 65 © Copyright Black and Decker Inc., 2004; reproduced with permission.

Figure 66 Permission to reproduce extractsfrom BS 1363: 1995 Part 2 is granted byBSI. British Standards can be obtained from BSI Customer Services, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL. Tel: +44 (0)20 8996 9001. Email:

Figure 71 Courtesy of Apple Computer Inc.

Figure 72 © Alex Bartel/Science Photo Library.

Figure 74(a) © Hulton Archive.

Figure 74(b) Courtesy of BT Archives.

Figure 74(c) Courtesy of BT (UK) Ltd.

Figure 74(d) © NEC2001–2004. Courtesy of NEC (UK) Ltd.

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