Exploring data: Graphs and numerical summaries
Exploring data: Graphs and numerical summaries

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Exploring data: Graphs and numerical summaries

2.5 Cirrhosis and alcoholism

The data in Table 5, which are given for several countries in Europe and elsewhere, are the average annual alcohol consumption in litres per person and the death rate per 100 000 of the population from cirrhosis and alcoholism. It would seem obvious that the two are related to each other, but what is the relationship and is it a strong one? How can the strength of such a relationship be measured? Is it possible to assess the effect on alcohol-related deaths of taxes on alcohol, or of laws that aim to reduce the national alcohol consumption?

Table 5 Average alcohol consumption and death rate

Country Annual alcohol consumption (1/person) Cirrhosis & alcoholism (death rate/100 000)
France 24.7 46.1
Italy 15.2 23.6
W. Germany 12.3 23.7
Austria 10.9 7.0
Belgium 10.8 12.3
USA 9.9 14.2
Canada 8.3 7.4
England & Wales 7.2 3.0
Sweden 6.6 7.2
Japan 5.8 10.6
Netherlands 5.7 3.7
Ireland 5.6 3.4
Norway 4.2 4.3
Finland 3.9 3.6
Israel 3.1 5.4

(Osborn, J.F. (1979) Statistical exercises in medical research. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, p.44.)

France has a noticeably higher average annual individual alcohol consumption than the others; the figure is more than double that of third-placed West Germany. The French alcohol-related death rate is just under double that of the next highest.

Activity 2: Alcohol consumption and death rate

Bearing in mind the comments above, summarise the information you might wish to glean from these data. Have you any suggestions for displaying the data?


You would wish to know whether the death rate is directly related to alcohol consumption and, if so, how. You would also need to know if the figures for France should be regarded as atypical. If so, how should they be handled when the data are analysed?

One suggestion for displaying the data would be to plot a graph of death rate against alcohol consumption.


Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus