Hearing
Hearing

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Hearing

Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Course image: Don McCullough in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

The following is contained in chapters 1, 2 and 6 from Signals and Perception: The fundamentals of Human Sensation, edited by David Roberts and published by Palgrave Press in association with The Open University. Copyright © (2002) The Open University. This publication forms part of an Open University course, SD329 Signals and Perception: The Science of the Senses.

Chapter 1 ‘The mechanics of hearing’: Jonathan Ashmore (University College London)

Figure 2: Geisler, C.D. (1988) From Sound to Synapse: Physiology of the Mammalian Ear, copyright © 1988 by C. Daniel Geisler. Used by permission of Oxford University Press; Figure 4: Science Museum/Science and Society Picture Library; Figures 5, 6: Rosowski, J.J. (1996) ‘Chapter 2: Models of External and Middle ear Function’, Hawkins, H.L. et al. (eds), Auditory Computation, Springer-Verlag; Figure 9a: courtesy of Professor Andy Forge, UCL Centre for Auditory Research, University College London; Figure 11: The Nobel Foundation.

Chapter 2 ‘The transformation of sound stimuli into electrical signals’: Robert Fettiplace (University of Wisconsin)

Figure 5a: Furness, D.N. et al, (1977) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 264, 1997, The Royal Society of London; Figure 7: Reprinted from Hearing Research, vol. 24, Palmer, A.R. and Russell, I.J., Copyright (1986), with permission of Elsevier Science; Figure 8: Rose, J.E. Galambos, R. and Hughes, J.R. (1959) Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, vol. 104, 1959, © John Hopkins Hospital. Reprinted by permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press; Figure 9: Reprinted from Hearing Research, 22, Kiang, N.Y.S. et al., Copyright (1986), with permission from Elsevier Science; Figure 10: Reprinted from Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Vol, Ashmore, J.F. and Kolston, P.J., Copyright (1994), with permission from Elsevier Science.

Chapter 6 ‘Hearing impairments: causes, effects and rehabilitation’ David Baguley (Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge) and Don McFerran (Essex County Hospital)

Figure 2: Courtesy of Roy F Sullivan, PhD, http://www.rcsullivan.com (no longer accessible); Figures 5, 6: reproduced with permission of Advanced Bionics; Figure 8: Tyler, R. Tinnitus Handbook, © 2000. Reproduced with permission of Delmar, a division of Thompson Learning.

Figure 4 (a) Picture by Mireille Lavigne-Rabillard, from ‘Promenade around the cochlea’, by R. Pujol, S. Blatrix, T.Pujol and V. Reclar-Enjalbert, () CRIC, University Montpellier;

Figure 7 (b) Copyright © Science Photo Library;

Figure 10 Bekesy, G. v. (1953) ‘Description of some mechanical properties of the organ of corti’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 25, no. 4, July 1953, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 11 (b) Zemlin, W. R. (1981) Speech and Hearing Science: Anatomy and Physiology, 2nd edn, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Copyright © 1981, 1968 by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632;

Figure 14Yost, W. A. (2000) ‘Peripheral auditory nervous system and haircells’, Fundamentals of Hearing: An Introduction, 4th edition, Academic Press. Copyright © 2000 by Academic Press;

Figure 19 Kiang, N. Y. S. (1980) ‘Processing of speech by the auditory nervous system’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 68, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 21 Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H. and Jessell, T. M. (2000) Principles of Neural Science, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill. Copyright © 2000 by The McGraw-Hills Companies, Inc. All rights reserved;

Figure 23 (a) Rose, J. E., Hind, J. E., Anderson, D. J. and Brugge, J. F. (1971) ‘Some effects of stimulas intensity on response of auditory nerve fibers in the Squirrel Monkey’, Journal of Neurophysiology, 34, The American Physiological Society;

Figure 23 (b) Goldstein, E. B. (1999) Sensation and Perception , 5th edition, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Copyright © 1999 by Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. A division of International Thomson Publishing, Inc;

Figure 24 Adapted from Wever, E. G. (1949) Theory of Hearing , John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 1949 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reprinted by permission;

Figure 27 Lindsay, P. H. (1972) Human Information Process: An Introduction to Psychology, Academic Press. Copyright © 1972 by Academic Press;

Figure 30 Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W. and Paradiso, M. A. (1996) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, Williams & Wilkins. Copyright © 1996 Williams & Wilkins;

Figure 34 Sivian, L. J. and White, S. D. (1933) ‘On minimum audible sound fields’,The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 4, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 35 Fletcher, H. and Munson, W. A. (1933) ‘Loudness, its definition, measurement and calculation, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 5, October 1933, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 36 Stevens, S. S., Volkmann, J. (1940) ‘The relation of pitch to frequency: a revised scale’, The American Journal of Psychology, vol. 53, no. 3, July 1940, The University of Illinois Press;

Figure 37 Harris, J. D. (1952) ‘Pitch discrimination’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 24, no. 6, November 1952, Americ Egan, J. P. and Hake, H. W. (1950) ‘On the masking pattern of a simple auditory stimulus’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 22, no. 5, September 1950, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 42 (a) Zwicker, E. and Terhardt, E. (1974) Facts and Models in Hearing, Springer-Verlag. Copyright © by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1974;

Figure 42 (b) Goldstein, E. B. (1999) Sensation and Perception, 5th edition, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Copyright © 1999 by Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. A division of International Thomson Publishing, Inc;

Figure 43Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W. and Paradiso, M. A. (1996) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, Williams & Wilkins. Copyright © 1996 Williams & Wilkins.

Don't miss out:

If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University - www.open.edu/ openlearn/ free-courses

SD329_1

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus