The making of individual differences
The making of individual differences

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

The making of individual differences

5.5 Summary of Section 5

When oestradiol combines with its receptor inside neurons, the cell produces proteins which protect it from cell death. As a consequence, the male brain, which has oestradiol in its neurons in early life, becomes different from the female brain, which does not have oestradiol in its neurons. Retinoic acid is needed in high concentrations to produce those proteins associated with posterior structures of the embryo, whilst retinoic acid is needed in low concentrations to produce those proteins associated with anterior structures. This is an example of one signal, i.e. one transcription factor, whose effect differs with concentration. Transcription factors are the gatekeepers of the genome, through which environmental factors exert their effects. Profound effects on the physical development of the organism result from interference with transcription factors.

SD226_1

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has nearly 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus