Vaccination
Vaccination

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Vaccination

6.8 Summary of Section 6

Features of host-pathogen interactions that present a major challenge to vaccine development include:

  1. A permanent reservoir of infection in other animals (zoonoses) or in carrier individuals, and free-living pathogens in the environment.

  2. Rapid mutation of pathogen genomes resulting in antigenic variation, antigenic disguise with host proteins, multiple strains, or different antigens at different stages of the pathogen's life cycle.

  3. Effective countermeasures in pathogens to evade or inhibit immune responses against them including decoy proteins, and inhibition of lysosome fusion complement activation or antigen presentation.

  4. Immunogenic regions located away from regions that are essential for pathogen survival and replication.

  5. Weak or absent immunogenicity of pathogen antigens, which also creates scientific uncertainty about what constitutes an effective immune response.

S320_1

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus