Water and human health
Water and human health

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Water and human health

4.6 Postscript to Section 4

This section has considered a small number of chemical pollutants of water and has examined what is known about their harmful effects on animals, humans and the environment. You should be aware of a number of important general points that arise from what you have read. First, there is an enormous variety of chemical pollutants; you have read about only a few. Secondly, the evidence that chemical pollutants are potentially harmful is often more convincing from studies of animals than it is from studies of human health. Thirdly, you have read mostly about amphibians; much is known about the harmful effects of chemical pollutants on other animals, but they have been the focus here because of their role as ‘canaries’, possibly providing early warning of environmental problems. Finally, while much is known about the harmful effects of chemical pollutants on wildlife and people, this body of knowledge pales into insignificance in comparison with what is not known.


Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has nearly 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus