The three-way catalytic converter
The three-way catalytic converter

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The three-way catalytic converter

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Course image: Ray T [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Licence.

Figure 2 Nortier, P. and Soustelle, M. (1987) 'Alumina carriers for automotive pollution control', in Cruecq, A. and Frennet, A. (eds) Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Elsevier Science Publishers;

Figure 3 Eggleston, H. S. et al. (1991) Corinair Working Group on Emmision Factors for Calculating 1990 Emissions from Road Traffic, Volume 1: Methodology and Emission Factors, Commission of the European Communities;

Figure 4 Courtesy of Dr S. Golunski, Johnson Matthey;

Figure 5 Acres, C. J. K., Thomas, J. M. and Zamaraev, K. I. (1991) Perspectives in Catalysis, Blackwell Science Ltd;

Figure 6 Reprinted from Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Gandhi, H. S. and Shelef, M. (1987) 'The role of research in the development of new generation automotive catalysts', p. 200, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 7 and 9 Reprinted from Surface Science, 76, (2), 1978, Conrad, H. et al. 'Interactions between oxygen and carbon monoxide on a palladium(III) surface';

Figure 8, 11 and 8A Reprinted from The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Volume 4, Engel,T. and Ertl, G. 'The role of research in the development of new generation automotive catalysts', 1982, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 10 Engel, T. and Ertl, G. 'A molecular beam investigation of the catalytic oxidation of CO on Pd(111)', Journal of Chemical Physics, 69, (3), August 1978, The American Institute of Physics;

Figure 12 and 16 Reprinted from Journal of Catalysis, 1986, 100, Oh, S. H. et al. 'Comparative kinetic studies of CO-O2 and CO-NO reactions over single crystal and supported rhodium catalysts', p. 360, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 13, 14, 15, 20 and 22 Reprinted from Catalysis Today, 1991, 10, Funabiki, M. et al. 'Auto exhaust catalysts', pp. 34 and 35, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 17 Liang, J. et al. 'FT-IR study of nitric oxide chemisorbed on Rh/Al2O3', Journal of Physical Chemistry, 89, 1985, American Chemical Society;

Figure 19 Reprinted from Journal of Catalysis, 1986, 101, Oh, S. H. and Carpenter, J. E. 'Role of nitric oxide in inhibiting carbon dioxide over alumina-supported rhodium', p. 114, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 21 Reprinted from Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control II, 1991, Diwell, A. F. et al. 'The role of ceria in three-way catalysts', p. 142, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Figure 23 Courtesy of Johnson Matthey;

Figure 24 Society of Automotive Engineers (1980) SAE Paper 800843, Copyright © 1980 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.;

Figure 25 McIntyre, B. R. and Faix, L. J. (1986) 'Lead detection in Catalytic emission systems and effects on emissions', SAE Paper 860488, Copyright © 1986 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.;

Figure 26 Shelef, M. (1987) 'The role of research in the development of new generation automotive catalysts', in Cruecq, A. and Frennet, A. (eds) Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Elsevier Science Publishers;

Figure 27 Reprinted from Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control II, 1991, Monroe, D. R. et al. 'The effect of sulfur on three-way catalysts', p. 612, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Table 1 Reprinted from Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control II, 1991, Diwell, A. F. et al. 'The role of ceria in the three-way catalysts', p. 145, with kind permission of Elsevier Science - NL, Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, 1055 KV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Table 2 Ansell, G. P. et al. (1991) 'Effects of SO2 on the alkane activity of three-way catalysts', Catalysis Letters, 11, p. 187, © J. C. Baltzer A.G. Scientific Publishing Company;

Table 3 Diwell, F. et al. (1987) 'The impact of sulphar storage on emissions from three-way catalysts', SAE Paper 872163, Copyright © 1987 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

We gratefully acknowledge the help of Dr Stan Golunski and Dr Andrew Walker in the preparation of the original material.

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