Phosphorus is recognised as a potential poison for automotive catalysts. The phosphorus level in fuel is generally very low (2×10−5 g l−1), but it is present in higher concentrations in engine oils (1.2 g l−1). Phosphorus derived from the engine oil is believed to react with the alumina support, and also to reduce the activity of the noble metal component. This deactivation is particularly important for Pd, with which phosphorus may form an alloy. At the time of writing, phosphorus levels in engine oil are becoming an issue, and oils with reduced levels are appearing on the market.