The Big Bang
The Big Bang

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The Big Bang

Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for material used in this course:

Course image: LLacertae in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Licence.

Figures 2, 5, 8, 11, 13 and 14b from Hale Observatories;

Figure 6a, b based on H. Arp (1960) in Astronomical J., 65, 426;

Figure 7 from Le Grand Atlas de l'Astronomie, Encyclopaedia Universalis editeur;

Figure 10 based on Erik Holmberg in E.M. and G.R. Burbidge (1975) Galaxies and the Universe, University of Chicago Press;

Figure 12 NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology;

Figure 14a courtesy of Uppsala University;

Figure 15 based on E.P. Hubble (1929) in Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 15, 168;

Figure 17 adapted from A. Sandage (1970) Physics Today, vol. 34, February 1970, American Institute of Physics;

Figure 20a based on D.P. Woody et al. (1975) in Phys. Rev. Lett., 34, 1036–9;

Figures 20b and 28 based on R.A. Muller (1978) in Scientific American, 238, 64–74;

Figure 21 courtesy of NASA/CSFC and COBE Science Working Group;

Figure 25 courtesy of Dr A.A. Penzias;

Figure 29 courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland;

Figure 30 based on C.L. Bennett et al., (2003) The Astrophys. J. Supp., 148(1), 1–27;

Figure 31 from M.S. Smith, L.H. Kawano and R.A. Malaney (1993) The Astrophys. J. Supp., 85, 219–47;

Figure 32 adapted from R.V. Wagoner (1973) The Astrophys. J., 179(2), 349;

Figure 35 B.E.J. Pagel et al. (1992) Monthly Notices of the RAS, 255, 325–45.

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