3.4 Prisons and social harm
Prisons, as conceptualised through the idea of the prison industrial complex, can be seen as creating and exacerbating ‘social harms’. A zemiological approach can be applied to prisons to identify and illustrate different types of social harm.
Hillyard and Tombs (2007) argued that there are four main types of social harm. These are:
- Physical harm (for example harms involving death, injury or illness)
- Financial harm (for example harming the income, job security or credit rating of individuals)
- Psychological harm (such as mental illness or anxiety)
- Cultural harm (this is referred to by Hillyard and Tombs in terms of ‘threats to cultural safety’ – such as racism or disruptions to community life – but you can consider it quite broadly for the purposes of this activity).
Activity 6 Harms and prisons
Consider each of the categories of harm set out by Hillyard and Tombs (2007), examining how they could be argued to connect with prisons and those who might be connected with the industrial prison complex. You should write your ideas in the box below.
There are numerous ways in which prisons, and the wider idea of the prison industrial complex (including as a global industry), can be seen to connect to or indeed cause or exacerbate social harms. The following are some examples but you may well have thought of others.
Physical harm: This could result from physical attacks in prison, an increased likelihood of becoming dependent on drugs, lack of exercise and the lack of control prisoners have over their own diet. These impacts of prison are likely to be have long-term effects, being felt by individuals not only during their time in prison, but also subsequently, following release.
Financial harm: In their writing, Hillyard and Tombs (2007, p.14) point to the possibilities of ‘the loss of a job and diminution of future employment prospects’ which will of course potentially have a considerable impact on future income. It is also likely to affect credit worthiness and time spent in prison may also reduce pension entitlement. Increased government spending on prisons might draw resources away from benefits and government services on which more disadvantaged members of society may rely.
Psychological harm: Loss of liberty, physical harm and financial harm can all have serious psychological impacts (and these in turn can make physical health worse). Mental illness, self-harm and suicide are evident in prisons. Hillyard and Tombs (2007, p. 14) note that imprisonment can result in the loss ‘a home, a child or a family life, and ostracism by society’ each of which in itself can have an adverse impact on mental health.
Cultural harm: Hillyard and Tombs note that processes of criminalisation and punishment tend to fall disproportionately on the most vulnerable in society. This can lead to a loss of cultural connection through, for example, unemployment and potentially, to support services. Where a significant proportion of a community is affected by imprisonment (as is the case in some Black communities in the USA) community and family life can be seriously disrupted and the whole community may suffer stigma by association with criminality.