Glossary

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
drugs that block the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase that quickly breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
ACP
advance care planning or advance care plan (a non-legally binding document, that is reviewed and updated as a person’s views or situation change, that must be taken into account when acting in a person’s best interests).
Adjuvant analgesics
drugs used to increase pain tolerance when conventional analgesics are non-effective.
Advance care planning
a documented discussion between a health and social care professional, a patient and those closest to them, that covers the patient’s wishes and preferences for their care and treatments in the future (what they want, what they don’t want and who will speak for them).
ADRT
advance decision to refuse treatment, also known as advanced directive in Scotland..
Advanced directives
instructions given by a person before they become mentally or physically incapacitated, that covers their future care and may include ADRT and Enduring Power of Attorney.
Anticholinergics
agents that block the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves.
Antimuscarinics
an agent that counteracts the effects of muscarine or blocks the muscarinic receptors.
Apomorphine
a drug used for acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility episodes in advanced parkinsonism.
Combativeness
propensity to quarrel.
COMT inhibitors
drugs that block catechol-o-methyl transferase, an enzyme that breaks down dopamine.
DBS
deep brain stimulation, a form of surgery that is used to treat some of the symptoms of Parkinson's.
Dopamine agonists
drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the brain.
Duodopa®
enterally administered levodopa/carbidopa gel used for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's in patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias.
Dysarthria
inability to speak normally due to loss of control of the muscles of the tongue, lips, cheeks or larynx.
Dyskinesia
involuntary movements caused by long term use of Levodopa
Dysphagia
Swallowing difficulties.
Dysphasia
difficulty with speaking and sometimes with comprehending speech.
End of life care
holistic care that focuses on quality of life issues for a person who will die within the next 12 months and those closest to them.
EPA
enduring power of attorney is a legal document that enables you to appoint someone to manage your financial affairs now or in the future when you become mentally or physically unable to do so yourself.
Enteral administration
feeding or drug administration by the digestion process of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gastrostomy feeding
feeding through a tube inserted through the skin and stomach wall.
Hypophonia
soft speech resulting from a lack of coordination in the vocal muscles.
LSVT
Lee Silverman Voice Technique is a treatment delivered by a speech therapist that focuses on increasing vocal loudness through exaggerated motions and behaviours.
MAO-B inhibitors
Monoamine oxydase B is an enzyme that breaks down dopamine in the brain. Inhibiting it prolongs the action of dopamine.
Midazolam
a muscle relaxing / anticonvulsant drug generally given as a sedative.
Multidisciplinary team
a variety of health and social care professionals involved in the physical, social, psychological and spiritual care of a person.
Muscarine
A highly toxic alkyloid with neurologic effects.
NCPC
National council for palliative care.
NG tube
Nasogastric tube inserted up the nose and down the throat into the stomach.
NICE
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
Palliative care
active total care of people whose condition is not responsive to curative treatment, and involves the physical, psychological, spiritual and social aspects of care.
Parathesia
an abnormal sensation such as burning or prickling.
Parenteral administration
drug administration delivered by routes other than the gastrointestinal tract.
PEG
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Person centred care
coordinated and seamless care that promotes satisfaction and improved care outcomes for a person.
Psychosis
a symptom of mental illness where a patient believes their hallucinations and/or delusions are real.
RIG
Radiologically-inserted gastrostomy.
Sialorrhea
excessive salivation.
SIGN
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.
Somnolence
sleepiness.
Specialist palliative care services
pain relief care from a variety of specialist health professionals triggered at certain times in a condition’s trajectory.
Subcutaneously
located or placed just beneath the skin.
Sundowning
a state of disorientation or agitation that sometimes occurs in late afternoon or evening in people with later stage dementia.
Team approach
involving all the disciplines and agencies giving care to a person.
Transdermally
through or by way of the skin.
WHO
World Health Organisation.