2.2.4 What are the forces that might lead to changes?

Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of forces with strong vested interests in authentication of internet users.

  1. State agencies (police, security services, social services, tax, VAT and other public authorities).

  2. Commerce and industry. A space in which ‘nobody knows you're a dog’ is not an ideal space in which to do business. As online commerce becomes more important, there is increasing pressure for authentication processes so that vendors and customers can be sure of the identities of those with whom they deal, online ‘signatures’ can be validated, fraud reduced and online-only contracts made legally enforceable.

2.2.3 In what ways might the internet change?

2.2.5 What would be the implications of changes in the nature of the Net?