4.4 Technology push versus market pull

Another key issue in the application of technology policy, and indeed in the assessment of options, is the balance between technology push and market pull. Traditionally the R & D process has been seen as a linear one which was strongly influenced by a push from ‘pure science’, with scientific curiosity often shaping the pattern of development. Then, market concerns began to dominate and the emphasis in R & D moved away from longer term ‘blue skies’ research to a focus on ‘near market’ options i.e. focusing on product ideas which are almost, but not quite, competitive in the market place. More recently, there have been moves to integrate the innovation system.

4.3 Promotion and regulation

4.5 Technology transfer