The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). See Terms and Conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

The material acknowledged below is contained in

Goodman, S., Lillis, T., Maybin, J. and Mercer, N (eds) (2003) . ‘Language, literacy and education: a reader. Trentham Books, Stoke on Trent, 2003. Published in association with The Open University. © The Open University.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following

Hicks, D. (1995) ‘Discourse, Learning and Teaching’ in Apple, M. (ed) Review of Research in Education, No. 21, American Educational Research Association.

Olson, D. (1996) ‘Literate mentalities: Literacy, consciousness of language, and modes of thought’, Modes of Thought: Explorations in Cultures and Cognition, Cambridge University Press.

Street, B. (1997) ‘The implication of the “New Literacy Studies” for Literacy Education’, in English in Education – Literacy; Vol. 31, No. 1, Autumn 1997, The National Association for the Teaching of English.


Table 4: ©Computerscope Ltd.

Table 5: ©Human Development Report Office / UNDP.


Figure 1: ©2002 Global Reach.