5.6 Use of antimicrobials in humans

Modelling the data from the Canadian example suggests that if humans have recently taken antimicrobials before exposure to S. Heidelberg, they are at increased risk of infection with this serovar. This is because antimicrobials in general reduce the bacterial diversity in the human intestine, killing microbes that would normally compete with the pathogenic bacteria.

Therefore, exposure of an individual to resistant bacteria, while they are taking an antibiotic for a different reason, will enable colonisation with that resistant strain (Collineau et al., 2020). A general focus on human antibiotic stewardship and the reduction of use is therefore likely to reduce infection with 3GC-resistant S. Heidelberg, and in principle with any resistant food-borne bacteria.

5.5 Household measures

5.7 Controlling water-borne transmission of AMR