Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the 13 Blended Learning Modules for the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme. Together with the practical skills training sessions that accompany each of the supported self-study texts, this programme will upgrade the Health Extension Workers who complete the curriculum to Health Extension Practitioners at Level-IV of the Ethiopian Occupational Standards. The upgrading programme is sponsored by the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and the Regional Health Bureaus (RHBs). The FMOH gratefully acknowledges the receipt of funding for this programme from the Ethiopian Office of UNICEF (the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund), The Open University UK, the Alan and Nesta Ferguson Foundation Trust UK, and AMREF (the African Medical and Research Foundation).
Hygiene and Environmental Health is in two separate Parts and was produced by a team of Ethiopian experts, who were trained and supported by experts in blended learning pedagogy from the HEAT (Health Education and Training) Team for Africa at The Open University UK. The contributors of original material are:
The Academic Editors of Hygiene and Environmental Health are Pam Furniss, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Systems in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, and Dr Sarah-Jane Davies, Lecturer in Environmental Sciences in the Faculty of Science, with contributions from Dr Hilary MacQueen, Dr Basiro Davey, Dr Stephen Burnley and Dr Suresh Nesaratnam, all at The Open University UK. The other members of the HEAT Team are:
We acknowledge the vital contributions of the Programme Coordinators within Ethiopia:
The cover design for Hygiene and Environmental Health is by Chris Hough, Learning and Teaching Solutions, The Open University UK. The cover illustration (large circle) and some other illustrations in this Module were produced by Terefe Wondimagegnehu from the Federal Ministry of Health. The small cover photo is reproduced with the permission of UNICEF Ethiopia.
We particularly wish to acknowledge our use in this Module of photographs supplied by WaterAid in Ethiopia and adapted extracts and illustrations from the following sources:
Bassett W.H. (ed.) (2004) Clay’s Handbook of Environmental Health 19th ed, London, Spon Press.
Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology http://www.eawag.ch/ index_EN
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2008) Household water treatment and safe storage in emergencies. A field manual for Red Cross/Red Crescent personnel and volunteers. http://www.wsscc.org/ sites/ default/ files/ publications/ ifrc_hwts_in_emergencies_2008.pdf
Stockholm Environment Institute (2007) Toilets that make compost: Low-cost, sanitary toilets that produce valuable compost for crops in an African context, by Peter Morgan, Stockholm Environment Institute, EcoDSanRes programme. http://www.ecosanres.org/ pdf_files/ ToiletsThatMakeCompost.pdf
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) (2007) Fura kebele declared open defecation free environment. http://www.susana.org/ docs_ccbk/ susana_download/ 2-297-open-defecation-freeenvironment-ethiopia-en.pdf
UNICEF (2009) Community Approaches to Total Sanitation, Field Notes. http://www.unicef.org/ evaluation/ files/ CATS_field_note.pdf
University of California Regents, Dermatology Glossary. http://missinglink.ucsf.edu/ lm/ DermatologyGlossary/ index.html
USAID/HIP (2007) Preparing for Community-led Total Behaviour Change in Hygiene and Sanitation. http://www.aed.org/ Publications/ upload/ Health-Extension-Worker-Handbook.pdf
WaterAid in Ethiopia (2007) The colour of change. http://www.wateraid.org/ documents/ plugin_documents/ the_colour_of_changeweb.pdf
WHO (1994) Health Laboratory Facilities in Emergency and Disaster Situations. http://helid.digicollection.org/ en/ d/ Jh0193e/ 16.7.html
WHO (1996) Participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation: A new approach to working with communities. http://www.who.int/ water_sanitation_health/ hygiene/ envsan/ phast/ en/
WHO (1997) Vector control: Methods for use by individuals and communities. http://www.who.int/ water_sanitation_health/ resources/ vectorcontrol/ en/ index.html
WHO (1997) Guidelines for drinking water quality, Volume 3 Surveillance and control of community supplies. http://www.who.int/ water_sanitation_health/ dwq/ gdwq2v1/ en/ index2.html
WHO (1998) Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) Step-by-step Guide: A Participatory Approach for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases. http://www.who.int/ water_sanitation_health/ hygiene/ envsan/ phastep/ en/
WHO (2003) Malaria entomology and vector control.
WHO and IRC Water and Sanitation Centre (2003) Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation: A reference document for planners and project staff, by F.Brikke and M.Brodero. http://www.bvsde.paho.org/ bvsacd/ cd41/ agua.pdf
The opinions expressed in this Module are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of the donor organisations whose generous support made the production of Hygiene and Environmental Health possible.