9 Guidelines, standards and protocols for One Health AMR and AMU surveillance

The WHO and FAO guidelines are summarised in this section, as well as the OIE’s set of standards to support One Health AMR surveillance that aims to identify public health AMR risks associated with bacteria carried by healthy animals raised for human consumption. Also included is the AMR surveillance protocol that Mott MacDonald produced to support countries design an active surveillance programme for AMR in healthy broiler and layer poultry. There’s also a brief overview and key features of the document produced by each organisation.

As described in Section 8, One Health AMR surveillance measures resistance to a common set of antimicrobials in a common set of zoonotic bacteria in samples from humans, animals and/or food products and the environmental. All of the documents support a One Health approach to AMR surveillance by focusing on measuring resistance in zoonotic bacteria to antimicrobials that are of critical importance to human health.

The WHO guidelines guide integrated surveillance in the common set of bacteria and antimicrobials in samples from humans, animals and food products. While the other three documents do not guide surveillance in humans, they support the animal health sectors to design and implement their contribution to One Health AMR surveillance through testing samples from animals and/or animal-derived food products. An important factor of One Health AMR surveillance is to harmonise AST methods and interpretation of results across samples from humans, animals and/or food products.

8 One Health AMR surveillance programmes