5 A One Health approach to controlling AMR

Our example AMR problem can be controlled through a One Health approach that involves applying different measures in different sectors at multiple levels that range from global to national to farm to individual people. For example:

  • international advocacy and national regulation of 3GC use
  • complementary changes in 3GC use at the farm level
  • improved hygiene in food processing and retail
  • improved hygiene associated with food-handling and preparation in homes
  • changes to antimicrobial use in humans.

Let’s think about some of the control measures that can be applied in the different sectors, using the Canadian example of ceftiofur resistance in S. Heidelberg.

Activity 5: Control measures

Timing: Allow about 5 minutes

Which steps in the infection pathway could be targeted?

Emergence of resistance in broilers

a. 

True


b. 

False


The correct answer is a.

Answer

This is the initial step to reduce the emergence of ceftiofur resistance in chicken meat.

Transmission of resistance among chicken meat during food processing

a. 

True


b. 

False


The correct answer is a.

Answer

This will help reduce the spread of Salmonella organisms, including those that are resistant to ceftiofur, among chicken carcases and chicken meat pieces during slaughter and retail.

Infection of humans

a. 

True


b. 

False


The correct answer is a.

Answer

This will help reduce the transmission of Salmonella organisms, including those that are resistant to ceftiofur, from meat to humans during food preparation and consumption.

Manufacture of 3GCs

a. 

True


b. 

False


The correct answer is b.

Answer

The manufacture of 3GCs will not impact the emergence of resistance through the prophylactic use in hatching eggs and chicks, nor the transmission of ceftiofur resistance from chickens to humans.

In summary, the aim of these measures is to preserve the effectiveness of 3GCs that are important for treating both human and animal diseases by reducing the emergence of resistance, and to reduce the probability of humans becoming infected with Salmonella organisms (resistant and non-resistant) from chicken meat.

There are also measures that can be taken in the environmental sector for controlling salmonellosis in countries with poor water sanitation processes, where water is an important source of infection by Salmonella organisms in addition to the food chain. This expands the illustration of a multi-sectoral approach to controlling transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae to include the environment.

4.4 The impact on the health of people

5.1 Global-scale measures