6 Leading the fight against AMR at the global level: the Tripartite

The Tripartite is a consortium of the following three global organisations:

They have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to work together to lead a collective global One Health approach that minimises the emergence and spread of zoonotic diseases and AMR (OIE et al., 2018).

The Tripartite has developed a draft workplan to combat AMR [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (OIE, 2019c) that aims to:

  • ensure that antimicrobial agents continue to be effective and useful to cure diseases in humans and animals
  • promote prudent and responsible use of antimicrobial agents
  • ensure global access to medicines of good quality.

Activity 6: Looking at the Tripartite

Timing: Allow about 30 minutes

Part 1

Spend a few minutes exploring the separate roles of the three organisations in relation to AMR, then answer the questions in Part 2.

  • Visit the WHO’s AMR website (WHO, n.d. 1) and scroll down to the section labelled ‘Our work’. The WHO states that its core role is to ‘co-ordinate the global AMR response in collaboration with key partners’.
  • Visit the AMR section of the OIE website (OIE, n.d.) and spend a few minutes browsing the information.

    Key roles of OIE include the following:

    • Guiding the prudent use of antimicrobials in terrestrial and aquatic animals.
    • Developing intergovernmental standards on AMR and on monitoring the quantities of antimicrobial agents used.
    • Establishing a worldwide database to monitor the use of antimicrobial agents in animals. The OIE supports member countries to develop systems for measuring and reporting antimicrobial use in animals at the country level. The purpose of this system is to improve countries’ capability to reliably measure AMU in different animal production systems, which will contribute to a global and regional analysis of antibiotic use in animals and indicate changes over time.
  • Visit the AMR section of the FAO website (FAO, n.d.) and look at The FAO Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance 2016–2020 (FAO, 2016).

    Key roles of FAO include the following:

Part 2

Now test your understanding of the particular roles of the different Tripartite organisations in dealing with AMR.

  1. Optimising the use of antibiotics in human medicine.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is c.

Answer

The WHO Integrated Antimicrobial Stewardship toolkit provides practical guidance on setting up antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes in the human health sector (WHO, 2019b).

  1. Compiling a list of antimicrobial agents of veterinary importance.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is b.

Answer

The OIE provides a list of antimicrobial agents recommended for use in food-producing animals, separating these into levels of importance with a view to preserving their efficacy.

  1. Responsible for international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is a.

Answer

For example, the FAO hosts the Codex Alimentarius, which provides guidelines designed to minimise the transmission of AMR through the food chain. You can read about Codex Alimentarius on the FAO website.

  1. Facilitates the establishment of national surveillance systems using a standardised approach to monitor AMR and AMU in human medicine.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is c.

Answer

This is called the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS), which you can read about on the WHO’s GLASS website. There is also more information in the Introducing AMR surveillance systems module.

  1. Surveillance and monitoring of AMR in animals and food.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is a.

Answer

For example, the FAO’s own action plan on AMR aims to increase existing laboratory capacities for monitoring AMR and detecting antimicrobial residues (FAO, 2016).

  1. Surveillance and monitoring of AMU in animals.

a. 

FAO


b. 

OIE


c. 

WHO


The correct answer is b.

Answer

The OIE supports surveillance of AMU in animals by providing a system and tools for countries to report AMU in animals at the country level (OIE, 2020).

Discussion

You may have found it difficult to identify the relevant organisation for each activity because there is some cross-over, so don’t worry. This is one reason why it is so important that these organisations collaborate!

You probably noticed that all the organisations mention the importance of a One Health approach, and are committed to implementing the Global Action Plan for AMR (WHO, 2015), which has five strategic objectives to:

  • improve awareness and understanding of AMR
  • strengthen knowledge through surveillance and research
  • reduce the incidence of infection
  • optimise the use of antimicrobial agents
  • develop the economic case for sustainable investment that takes account of the needs of all countries, and increases investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions.

5.7 Controlling water-borne transmission of AMR

7 National multi-sectoral organisations that address AMR