Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL
antimicrobial consumption (AMC)
Defined as quantities of antimicrobials used in a specific setting (total, community, hospital) during a specific period of time (e.g. days, months and year).
antimicrobial resistance coordination committee (AMRCC)
Enables the implementation of countries’ NAPs. It does this by developing and executing a strong implementation plan, linked to the country’s national developmental agenda, joined up across sectors.
Refers to any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites). This term applies whether the agent is intended for human, veterinary or agricultural applications.
antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST)
A microbiological test to determine whether bacteria are susceptible or resistant to an antibiotic.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)
non-profit US-based organisation that supports the development of scientific
and clinical standards and guidelines.
These are infections that are contracted outside
of a hospital. Typically defined as those diagnosed via a laboratory confirmed
sample within 48 hours of a patient being admitted to hospital.
defined daily dose (DDD)
A technical unit of drug consumption, defined as the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug used for its main indication in adults.
European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)
European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)
EUCAST is a standing committee jointly organised by ESCMID, ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) and European national breakpoint committees, and provides guidelines for conducting and interpreting AST.
global action plan on AMR (GAP-AMR)
A plan for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide, endorsed at the World Health Assembly in 2015, with five strategic objectives.
Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS)
A system for standardising and sharing surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide.
These are infections
that are contracted in a hospital. Typically defined as those diagnosed via a
laboratory confirmed sample at least 48 hours after a patient being admitted to
low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
Based on the
World Bank list of analytical income classification of economies.
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
In microbiology, minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical, usually a drug,
which prevents visible growth of a bacterium or bacteria. It is often expressed
in micrograms per millilitre (μg/ml) or milligrams per litre (mg/L).
national action plans (NAPs)
A plan for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a country that is aligned with the Global Action Plan on AMR.
national coordinating centre (NCC)
In this document the term is used to refer to the centre that establishes and oversees the WHO GLASS platform recognised national surveillance system. It gathers AMR data from the surveillance sites and national reference laboratories and communicates this information to national policy makers and global surveillance systems.
national reference laboratory (NRL)
Provides a reference service for other
laboratories for confirmatory and/or additional testing of isolates. May also provide support for quality
assurance, standardisation and training.
An approach to designing and
implementing programmes, policies, legislation and research in which multiple
sectors communicate and work together to achieve better public health outcomes.
The areas of work in which a One Health approach is particularly relevant
include food safety, the control of zoonoses (diseases that can spread between
animals and humans, such as flu, rabies and Rift Valley Fever), and combatting
antibiotic resistance (when bacteria change after being exposed to antibiotics
and become more difficult to treat).
point prevalence survey (PPS)
A standardised methodology for measuring antimicrobial use in hospital inpatients. It identifies all instances of a condition (such as AMR) at a particular point in time.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data essential to planning,
implementation and evaluation of public health practice.
Likely to be affected by something. In this
module it is used within the context of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility i.e. the degree to which bacteria are susceptible to the action of
World Health Organization (WHO)
An agency of the United Nations, established in 1948, that is responsible for international public health. Its mandate includes advocating for universal healthcare, monitoring public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting human health and wellbeing. It provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues.