9.5 Reflecting on the One Health guidelines

Now try Activity 9.

Activity 9: Reflecting on the One Health guidelines

Timing: Allow about 5 minutes
  1. What components of all four guidelines are relevant for a One Health approach to AMR surveillance?

a. 

They guide surveillance for AMR in bacteria carried by humans.


b. 

They guide surveillance for AMR in pathogens that cause clinical disease in animals.


c. 

They guide surveillance for resistance to all antimicrobials in all bacteria.


d. 

They guide surveillance for AMR in bacteria that may be transmitted from animals to humans.


The correct answer is d.

Discussion

One Health AMR surveillance focuses on surveillance for AMR in zoonotic bacteria carried by animals and the same bacteria carried by people. Zoonotic bacteria may be spread from animals to humans via direct contact with animals, via animal-derived food products or via the environment.

  1. What type of antimicrobials are the focus in a One Health approach to AMR surveillance?

a. 

Antimicrobials that are commonly used in human health.


b. 

Antimicrobials that are critically important for human health.


c. 

Antimicrobials that are critically important for animal health.


d. 

Antimicrobials that are commonly used in animal health.


The correct answer is b.

Discussion

One Health AMR surveillance focuses on testing for resistance to antimicrobials that are critically important for human health, in zoonotic bacteria carried by animals and the same bacteria in humans. Critically important antimicrobials for human health are those that are the only available antimicrobial, or one of limited available therapies, to treat serious bacterial infections in people.

  1. Which set of guidelines covers One Health AMR surveillance in humans as well as animals and food?

a. 

Regional Guidelines for Monitoring and Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria from Healthy Food Animals Intended for Consumption (FAO)


b. 

A Protocol for Active AMR Surveillance in Poultry (Mott MacDonald)


c. 

‘Harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes’ (OIE)


d. 

Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Bacteria: Application of a One Health Approach (WHO)


The correct answer is d.

Discussion

All protocols focus on surveillance for resistance to critically important human antimicrobials in zoonotic bacteria. WHO’s document provides guidance for implementing surveillance in humans as well as animals and food. The FAO, OIE and Mott MacDonald documents provide guidance for implementing surveillance in animals and food, supporting these sectors to contribute to a One Health AMR surveillance programme.

10 End-of-module quiz