5.2 National-scale measures: industry controls and national regulations

The following measures have been taken in a range of countries to reduce ceftiofur resistance in salmonellae carried by chickens:

  • The poultry industry in multiple Canadian provinces voluntarily withdrew the prophylactic use of ceftiofur in hatching eggs and chicks during the early 2000s (Dutil et al., 2010).
  • In May 2014, the Canadian chicken industry voluntarily withdrew the preventive use of all Category I antimicrobials, i.e. those considered by WHO as the most critically important to human health, which included ceftiofur (Collineau et al., 2020).
  • In Japan, the poultry industry ceased using ceftiofur in 2012, following which the prevalence of 3GC-resistant Salmonella in chicken meat significantly decreased (Collineau et al., 2020).
  • Denmark implemented voluntary restrictions on ceftiofur use (Collineau et al., 2020).
  • Europe removed the ceftiofur label claim for injection of day-old chicks (Collineau et al., 2020)
  • The US banned off-label use of ceftiofur in hatcheries (Collineau et al., 2020).

5.1 Global-scale measures

5.3 Farm-level measures