Resource 2: Products from crude oil
Teacher resource for planning or adapting to use with pupils
This diagram shows an oil distillation column.
Original Source of diagram: Oxford Science Programme Book1, published by OxfordUniversity Press, p. 92 (1990)
|Uses of crude oil|
|Fraction (or part) of the crude oil||Products from this fraction (sometimes after further treatment)|
|Gas (G)||Gas fuels, such as calor gas, making other chemicals|
|Petrol (P)||Fuel for cars, pesticides, drugs, plastics, fertilisers, detergents, solvents, making other chemicals|
|Kerosene (K)||Paraffin, jet fuel, white spirit|
|Diesel (D)||Fuel for trucks and buses, central heating oil|
|Heavy Oils (HO)||Lubricating oils and grease, waxes, polishes, making other chemicals|
|Residue (R)||Tar for road surfaces, waterproof roofing materials, fuel for power stations|
Teaching ideas would include making posters of products and by-products of crude oil using collages of magazine and newspaper adverts (you could show the products or brand names and symbols). Alternatively, you could make a display of empty containers. Products to consider include paraffin, diesel oil, petrol, lip balm, lipsticks, vaseline, lubricating oils, candles, tar and plastics.
Nigeria’s oil industry
Image from(Accessed 2008)
As of September 2004, Nigeria was the largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa, the fifth largest petroleum exporting country in the organisation of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC). Nigeria produces 30% of the total oil production in the African region. Oil income has historically provided about 95% of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. The source of Nigeria’s wealth is the Niger Delta, a wetland of about 70,000 sq km. The Niger Delta is made up of nine oil producing states and has an estimated population of about 20 million people, amounting to about 16.7% of the Nigerian population (120 million).
Map of the Niger Delta
http://www.usip.org/ events/ 2005/ 1107_niger.html (Accessed 2008)
Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Nigeria_oil#Geology_and_reserves (Accessed 2008)