5  TCP reliability

  • Sequence numbers are also used by TCP to ensure that data is delivered reliably. The diagram below shows the same client and server exchange with a window size of 2000. However, the second segment, sequence number 1001, is lost during transmission and is not received by the server:
  • The server will send an ACK segment to the client, with a sequence number of 1001. The client will interpret this to mean only the first segment, with sequence number 1, has been successfully received by the server. The client will now wait a short timeout interval, in the hope a delayed ACK will be received from the server confirming the receipt of 1001. If this is not received, the client will retransmit segment 1001, and await the ACK with sequence number 2001 from the server, confirming its receipt. The same procedure is followed for segments that are received with checksums indicating the presence of errors.

4  TCP windowing and flow control

6  Transport layer – UDP