3. Interpreting evidence from artefacts
History is always about balancing subjective claims (peoples’ personal accounts and opinions) against objective (independent) evidence. When exploring artefacts, rather than oral or written evidence, the same balancing applies. There are definite things that can be said about a pot for example, i.e. its shape, what it is made of etc. Something like ‘what it was used for’ can only be speculation, based on what we use such pots for now. By looking at the pot carefully, consulting old drawings and paintings and talking to others, we can build up a more certain picture of how it was used.
This part explores ways of helping pupils question their thinking and understanding about artefacts.
Case Study 3: Interpreting historical events using letters as artefacts
Mrs Ogbonna decides to use a book about the events of the Nigerian Civil War that started in 1967. She plans to use the book Sunset in Biafra as the text for the lesson. She chooses a range of paragraphs of the people’s experiences of the civil war. After studying these accounts carefully, Mrs Ogbonna realises that they are based on subjective evidence, and thinks that it would be a good idea to compare them to more objective historical evidence in the lesson. Therefore, Mrs Ogbonna gathers a range of documents and books written by historians that examine the inability of the Aburi Accord to resolve the conflicts. She makes a summary of the key ideas to use in class.
First, she asks each group to read the chosen paragraphs from Sunset in Biafra and then asks them to look at her chart of key events and thoughts by respected historians. Do they see any similarities or differences in these accounts of the same event? They discuss whether the subjective accounts in the book can be supported by the objective historical evidence put forward by historians. They agree that both give insights. The book is people’s perceptions and can vary according to their beliefs, but the chart just has facts.
At the end, Mrs Ogbonna summarises for her class the difference between subjective and objective evidence when looking at the past.
Key Activity: Displaying some of our history
- Ask your class to bring in any old items they have in their homes, such as traditional dress, old cooking utensils, woodwork, masks, bead and craftwork, pots etc.
- Remember that for your pupils things that are only 20 or 30 years old will seem very old. The important part of the exercise is for them to gather evidence about the artefact and, by looking at lots of old objects, to develop some idea of how to make sense of life in the past. If you can, make sure you have also collected some items, so that you can give to those who are unable to bring in anything.
- Ask your pupils, in pairs, to complete a worksheet (see Resource 2: My artefact) to display with the artefact.
When the display is complete, ask other classes to visit your exhibition. You could even ask parents and the local community to come to see the exhibits. You may find out more from your visitors about some of your artefacts.
2. Welcoming visitors to enhance the curriculum
Resource 1: Using artefacts in the classroom