Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 1

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering the questions below. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 1.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1 and 1.3)

In the text you are told that children in many communities in Ethiopia suffer from malnutrition. Can you name the different kinds of malnutrition and then describe the signs that might tell you that childhood malnutrition is a problem in your community?


The four main kinds of malnutrition in Ethiopia are acute and chronic malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency disorder.

The signs you would look for include:

  • Many children under five who are underweight
  • Many children who are very small for their age
  • Many children who frequently suffer from disease and illness
  • A high infant death rate
  • Many children who find learning difficult
  • A high proportion of children suffering from blindness.

SAQ 1.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4)

Mrs Y’s children are underweight but she tells you that they are eating lots of food. However you know that this is mainly carbohydrates. How can you persuade her that the family needs to eat many different kinds of food?


You know yourself that this is a question about nutrients. But you need to explain this simply and clearly to Mrs Y. Perhaps you might say that different kinds of food do different jobs. Some help to build the body, some produce energy and some prevent disease. So she needs to make sure that, in addition to carbohydrates, her family also eats some fats, some proteins and some micronutrients every day. (You could choose examples of these which are most common in your community.)

SAQ 1.3 (tests Learning Outcome 1.2)

Afeta is a kebele in Jimma Zone, Oromia Regional State. It has a total population of 4,800 people. Calculate the number of children under two and under five years old; then calculate the number of pregnant women in Afeta kebele who might need nutritional care and support.


If total population of Afeta is 4,800, then the number of:

  • Children under two children is 4800 x 8÷100 = 384
  • Children under five years is 4800 x 14.6÷100 = 701
  • Pregnant and lactating women is 4800 x 4÷100 = 192
  • Therefore, the number of children under two years in Afeta is 384, while the number of under-fives is 701. Afeta also has 192 pregnant and lactating women in one year.

SAQ 1.4 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.4 and 1.5)

Mrs X tells you that her family expects her to carry on working hard, with little food, even though she is seven months pregnant. She wants to persuade her family to let her rest and eat more. What advice would you give her?


Mrs X is right to be worried. Body-building nutrients are very important for pregnant women. Mrs X could tell her family that without rest and plenty of food she risks the baby being born with low birth weight. And low weight babies grow up with more chance of being ill, may do less well at school and may grow into adults who are unable to work effectively.

SAQ 1.5 (tests Learning Outcome 1.5)

How can improving the food people eat contribute to some of the Millennium Development Goals?


All the goals are linked but you may have suggested something like this:Better-nourished children are less likely to die than underweight children (MDG 4); Better-nourished children will do better at school (MDG 2)Women who are well nourished are less likely to give birth to underweight babies (MDG 4)Adults who are well nourished can work better and plan for the future (MDG 1).

Summary of Study Session 1