In the year of Our Lord one thousand two hundred and eighty three, on St Cyril’s day, the community of the men of the cantref of Llyn being assembled at Llanerfyl before the lord Anian, by divine mercy bishop of Bangor, [it was agreed] by the unanimous and express consent of the aforesaid community, in order that the ﬁrm, faithful, stable and secure peace of the lord king and his kingdom should be maintained in the future, [that] six of the more honest, noble and trustworthy men from the aforesaid cantref, whose names are represented by the afﬁxing of their seals [and] by whom the aforesaid peace may be more securely maintained, should by these presents bind themselves to the lord king or his heirs for the payment of two thousand pounds by way of security for the faithful observance of the said peace ...
(Bond of 9 July 1283, J.H. Edwards (ed.) Littere Wallie, preserved in Liber A in the Public Record Ofﬁce, 1940, pp. 154–5)
... It was answered that if anything was taken from anyone against his will by anyone, unless by order of the lord prince or his justice to the use of the prince’s castles or towns or for the upkeep of the household of the prince or his justice, who is in the place of the distain, for the prices accustomed in the times of the king and the prince, for which he should satisfy them in due form, the takers should be severely punished before the justice on the complaint of the plaintiff ...
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, London, 1838, p. 215)
To the petition of Goronwy Crach that, whereas he and his ancestors in the time of the king and the prince held the ofﬁce of rhingyll of the commote of Menai quit of any rent rendered for it, Sir Hugh de Leominster, keeper of the lady Queen of England, the mother of the prince, in the aforesaid commote, burdened the said ringildry with 60s ...
... the said Goronwy holds that bailiwick for the term of his life, rendering thence annually 60s. as long as he should bear himself well and faithfully towards the lord and that the arrears which were demanded from him by the justice for the farm of the aforesaid bailiwick from the time shown be repaid to him by the aforesaid council up to the feast of St Michael next ensuing. And for this grant the aforesaid Goronwy released and quitclaimed for himself and his heirs for ever to the said prince and his heirs all the right and claim which he had, or in any way could have in the ofﬁce of the aforesaid ringildry and then he made his letters of quitclaim which remain in the custody of the prince’s chancery.
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, London, 1838, p. 219)
Tudur son of Gruffydd of Anglesey, the king’s servant who served him faithfully in Wales and Ireland, begs the king that the bailiwick of the commote of Talybolion in Anglesey, which the king granted him freely of his grace by his letters on account of his service in the war in which lord Llywelyn was killed and again granted to him after the last war in Wales by other letters of his, he will cause to be freely granted to him, because Hugh, the king’s treasurer of Caernarfon, seeks money for the bailiwick, notwithstanding the grant in manner aforesaid.
(c.1295–1302 in William Rees (ed.) Calendar of Ancient Petitions relating to Wales, Cardiff, 1975, pp. 454–5)
Request to the earls, barons, knights, free men and whole community of Wales to grant, in such manner as Richard de Massy and Master Adam de Bodindon, whom the king is sending to them shall more fully request a ﬁfteenth like the rest of the realm, in order to pay the debts which the king incurred during his absence abroad in effecting the liberation of Charles, king of Sicily, his kinsman, whereby the state of the Holy Land and of the church was improved and peace secured; and to reply by the said messengers as to what they will do for the king.
(20 January 1291 in Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1292–1301, London, 1895, p. 419)
Madog ab Iorwerth 30s.
Einion Llwyd 13¼d.
Madog ab Einion 2s. 4d.
Gruffydd Ddu 5s 2¾d.
Iorwerth ab Einion 2s 2½d.
Iorwerth ap Gwahalet 3s.8½d.
Einion ap Gwahalet 16¾d ...
(Keith Williams-Jones (ed.) The Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll 1292–3, Cardiff, 1976, pp. 7–8)
Request to the good men and community of north Wales, in consideration of the king’s indigence and of his being with his army in Scotland, to be good enough to pay the subsidy they have granted of their own good will for the Scotch war, and for which the king renders many thanks, to the said Master Richard, at a day and place which he will let them know, and they will not omit to do so, as they love the king’s honour and advantage.
Grant that the subvention of money in aid of the Scotch war, which the bishops, abbots, priors and whole community of north Wales of their good will have made to the king, shall not be to their prejudice or drawn into a precedent.
(10 July, 21 September 1300 in Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1292–1301, London, 1895, pp. 526, 534)
... for the maintaining of the peace the justice caused to come before him all the more prominent and more honest Welshmen of the county, having full authority on behalf of the community of the whole county to ordain and decide, along with the counsel of the said justice, on a suitable remedy for the above- mentioned matters: which same more honest men, by an ordinance made between the justice and themselves, undertook for themselves and the whole community of the county to maintain the peace of the lord king in the same county.
(Ordinances, c.1296 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, London, 1838, p. 132)
1287. Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of Ystrad Tywi, moved by a dispute between himself and Sir Robert Tibetot, then the lord king’s justice of Carmarthen, on Sunday next before the feast of the blessed apostle Barnabas took the castles of Llandovery, Dinefwr and Carreg Cennen and afterwards burned the town of Swansea and the manor of Ystlwyf with the greater part of the land and town of Llanbadarn Fawr and the town of Carmarthen as far as the gates ...
(1287 in J. Williams ab Ithel (ed.) Annales Cambriae, London, 1860, p. 109)
In the same year, around the feast of St Michael, the Welsh rose in rebellion. For they had met together and decided among themselves that on the same day of St Michael they would all rise together against the king and attack his castles, and thus they did and on the same day, as if by surprise, they took many castles and they took the castle of Caernarfon, which our king had not long since constructed at great expense, demolishing the walls and slaughtering the king’s ministers, and those Englishmen who could, ﬂed and many were overwhelmed with the edge of the sword ... Moreover, the instigators of this treason were two named Madog and Morgan, who said that they were descended from the stock of Prince Llywelyn and that they should therefore assume the name of prince.
(1294 in H. Rothwell (ed.) The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, Royal Historical Society, Camden Third Series, vol. LXXXIX, London, 1957, p. 251)
To the petition to the prince of the villeins of the maerdref of Penrhos that the sheriff compelled them to pay £24 annually of an unjust extent. And to the petition of the prince’s villeins of Rhosyr that the justice distrained them to pay 12s. 9d. of annual rent of assize of an unjust extent in addition to what they were accustomed to pay. It was answered that what was put in the extent made in the time of the king before the land of Wales was given to the lord prince could not be remitted unless they showed a charter or title, but the justice was then instructed to have the extent examined and if an error should be found in it he should certify the lord of the error and meanwhile the demand should be respited.
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, p. 217)
The king to his beloved and faithful John de Havering, his justice of north Wales, and William Sycun, constable of his castle of Aberconwy, greeting. Because we have learned from the serious complaint of the men of the community of north Wales that the sheriffs, bailiffs and all our ministers of those parts have inﬂicted various trespasses, injuries, extortions, oppressions and grievous losses on the same men from the time that those lands came into our hands and that they still do not refrain from inﬂicting [them] from day to day, to the grave loss and manifest impoverishment of the men of the same community, we, therefore, wishing that justice should be brought to the aid of the same men, have appointed you our justices in this matter to enquire by the oath of honest and law- worthy men of those parts ... and then to do them justice according to the law and custom of those parts.
(Patent Rolls, 1 September 1295 in J.E. Morris, The Welsh Wars of King Edward the First: A Contribution to Medieval Military History, Oxford University Press, 1901, p. 266)
Letter to the good men and community of Snowdon and Anglesey, informing them that the abbot of Aberconwy, Thomas Danvers, Tudur ap Goronwy and Hywel ap Cynwrig, sent by them to the king’s presence, have related to the king the rumour which disturbed and grieved them, to wit, that the king held them in suspicion; and begging them not to believe such rumours for the future, as no sinister rumours of their state or behaviour has reached the king in these days and he has no suspicion towards them, but rather, by reason of their late good service, holds them for his faithful and devoted subjects.
(3 December 1296 in Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1292–1301, London, 1895, p. 223)
The 22nd day of April [of the 19th year] at the castle of Flint the underwritten men did homage and fealty to the lord Edward, son of Edward:
Sir Gruffydd Llwyd, knight Tudur ap Goronwy of Anglesey
Madog ap Cynwrig, archdeacon of Anglesey and Ieuan ap Hywel of Caernarfon
Tudur ap Gruffydd of Anglesey
Llywelyn ab Ednyfed of Anglesey
Gruffydd Fychan, son of Gruffydd ab Iorwerth of Anglesey Madog Fychan of Engleﬁeld.
(22 April 1301 in Edward Owen, A list of those who did homage and fealty to the ﬁrst English Prince of Wales, AD 1301, privately printed, 1901, pp. 3–4)
To the common petition that individuals may buy and sell victuals, horses, oxen and cows for their own sustenances anywhere in the land outside markets and fairs so that they should not be threatened with prosecution or amerced for such buying and selling ... It was answered that they should buy and sell in fairs and markets and nowhere else, except for small items of food like cheese, butter and milk changing hands for their own consumption far from markets ...
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, p. 212)
And to the petition of the same burgesses [of Beaumaris] that although the lord prince ordained that the three commotes nearest the aforesaid town should all come to the market of Beaumaris with all their merchandise, all the men of the aforesaid commotes have withdrawn themselves from the aforesaid town and go to the town of Newborough and display their merchandise for sale there because the burgesses there are all Welsh. It was answered that the justice was ordered that he should enforce the ordinance.
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, p. 223)
To the common petition of the Welsh of north Wales that they should be able to buy and sell lands in Wales: this would be a change in the law of those parts since none of them could sell land or let it for a term, except for a term of four years. And although they say that the king granted this article, it does not appear to the prince nor to his council that it was granted to them by the king, since those things granted to them by the king are expressly contained in his grant made to them, namely in the Statute of Rhuddlan, in which no mention was made of that article,nor does the prince intend to change the law in this case [which was] by decree of the king himself, because the king handed that land over to him to hold to himself and his heirs of the kings of England.
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H.Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgar iternuncupatum.The Record of Caernarvon ,p.214.)
... And that the freemen of Wales may be able for three years immediately following to sell and give lands, tenements and their rents to other free Welshmen ...
(Lincoln Ordinances, 1316 in Ivor Bowen, The Statutes of Wales, London, 1908, p. 29)
Whereas the custom is otherwise in Wales than in England concerning succession to an inheritance, inasmuch as the inheritance is partible among the heirs male, and from time whereof the memory of man is not to the contrary hath been partible, our lord the king will not have that custom abrogated; but willeth that inheritances shall remain partible among like heirs as it was wont to be; and partition of the same inheritances shall be made as it was wont to be made ...
(Statute of Wales, 1284 in Ivor Bowen, The Statutes of Wales, London, 1908, pp. 25–6)
Richard de Puleston, in consideration of service to the king’s father and mother, prays the king that, as he holds of him 30 of land in Wales by Welshry, by which after his days the land would be partible between his ten sons and none of them could be maintained from his part, the king will take the land into his hand and after ﬁfteen days make estate of it to Richard and Agnes his wife for life and afterwards to each one of his sons and the heirs male of their bodies, with reversion to Richard and his heirs, doing to the king the service of the twelfth part of a knight’s fee.
(2 July 1309 in Calendar of Chancery Warrants, 1244–1326, London, 1927, p. 289)
To the petition of Dafydd Fychan ap Dafydd ap Gwion, free tenant of the cantref of Llyn, that he may erect a mill in the place where his father and his ancestors had a mill in the times of the princes of Wales, of which the justice of north Wales and the sheriff of Caernarfon unjustly disturbed him. It was answered that the justice would ﬁnd out if a mill had been there in the past and that if he held it by inheritance it would be allowed.
(Kennington petitions, 1305 in H. Ellis (ed.) Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum. The Record of Caernarvon, p. 216.)
The community of the free men of all Anglesey show to the king that they are aggrieved, as it seems to them, in the underwritten articles: ﬁrstly, that they are compelled to make suit at the king’s mill otherwise than they did in the time of the prince of Wales.
Secondly, that the foreign tenants of the free men are compelled to the king’s avowry, which they never did in the time of the prince of Wales.
Thirdly, that those holding less than a carucate of land, or thereabouts, are distrained to do suit at the County Court, which heretofore they have not been compelled to do in the king’s time; whence they seek that the king will release them and remove these burdens from them.
The descendants of Iorwerth ap Llywarch of the commote of Menai in Anglesey seek that they may have their ferry at Llanidan in the same commote as they were wont to have in the time of all the princes, freely and quietly, until Hugh de Leominster compelled them to pay 20s. yearly for the eight years now last past, although they paid nothing before to any prince or to the existing king.
(c.1300 in William Rees (ed.) Calendar of Ancient Petitions relating to Wales, Cardiff, 1975, p. 452.)