4 Organisations and communities of practice

This section is concerned with the organisational level. There are strong links back to the first and second sections of this unit, when the implications of “Mode 2” were being explored, in terms of new systems of knowledge production, and institutional frameworks linking with regional innovation systems of clusters. Here, although the focus is intra-organisational, some of the conceptual approaches are clearly relevant to other levels of analysis. For example, the concept communities of practice is introduced here as an intra-organisational network, but in principle it seems quite likely that it would also be relevant to closely linked players in different organisations within clusters. The concept of ‘community of practice’ and some of the research methods have become particularly popular in Knowledge Management perspectives.

3.3 Innovation in institutions: policy and NGOs

4.1 Communities of practice