Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 5
Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.
Case Study 5.1 for SAQ 5.1
Wro Abebech, who is a mother of three children, is not feeling very well and she is complaining of fever and headache. Her husband and other family members are also worried about her health and they are supporting her by relieving her of her duties and by providing her with a better diet. After a while she was visited by a Health Extension Practitioner and referred to the nearby health centre for further management. In the health centre she was diagnosed by the nurse to have malaria and she received her treatment and then went back home. On her return she spent a week in bed with support from her family and neighbours. Soon after this she got better and returned to her day to day activities.
SAQ 5.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 5.1 and 5.2)
Based on the above case study, identify the specific phrases or words which clearly show the following states of ill health:
According to the things you learnt in Study Session 5, disease is negative bodily occurrences as conceived of by the medical profession. Illness is negative bodily occurrences as conceived of by the person themself. Sickness is negative bodily occurrences as conceived of by the society and/or its institutions such as family members. Hence, based on the case study given in SAQ 5.1, the words or phrases corresponding to the three states of ill-health in Abebech are:
- a.Disease: ‘She was diagnosed by the nurse to have malaria and she received her treatment and then went back to her home’.
- b.Illness: ‘She is not feeling good and she is complaining of fever and headache’.
- c.Sickness: ‘Her husband and other family members are also worried about her status and they are supporting her through relieving her of her duties and by providing her a better diet. On her return she spent time in bed with support from her family and neighbours’.
Case Study 5.1 Sisay’s story
Sisay, a five-year-old child, is ill with measles and he has a fever, body rash and cough. He has been ill for the last three days and other young children are also sick in your community. His mother, who is not educated, says that his illness is due to an evil eye and she is suggesting that he should go to the Holy Spirit. Her major argument was that the other children have been managed in the same way. His father, a diploma holder and a government employee, says that Sisay’s illness is due to a pathological cause and he should visit the nearby health post. After a thorough discussion, and some argument on the issue, the father’s idea was outweighed and the child is taken to the nearby church.
SAQ 5.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 5.1 and 5.3)
Based on the above case study, try to answer the following:
- a.Whose explanation of the causes of the illness (measles), is naturalistic and whose is personalistic?
- b.Whose cause or explanation is correct? Mother’s or father’s?
- c.Do you think the final decision of taking the child to the nearby church is an appropriate measure?
- d.As a Health Extension Practitioner, what would be your responsibility in addressing this issue that involves misperceptions and inappropriate actions?
- a.The father’s explanation that measles is caused by a pathogen is naturalistic as it has some scientific basis and the mother’s belief that measles is caused by an evil eye is a traditional/non-scientific explanation and it is classified as personalistic.
- b.The father’s explanation of the naturalistic cause is the correct one as it is scientifically proven fact that measles is caused by an infectious agent.
- c.The final decision of taking the child to the nearby church was not an appropriate scientific measure as the decision was based on a traditional/non-scientific explanation as a cause for measles.
- d.As a Health Extension Practitioner, your responsibility in addressing the issues that involve misperceptions and inappropriate actions would be to identify peoples’ perception on the causes of illness; if you come across any kind of personalistic explanations, try to educate them about the scientific causes of the illnesses and persuade them to get scientific/modern treatments for those diseases which have proven scientific causes and cures.
SAQ 5.3 (tests Learning Outcome 5.4)
Suppose Demekech is a member in your community, who is a TB patient on anti-TB treatment and that she has a two-year-old boy. If you are planning to educate the mother about the importance of taking her child for a TB check to the nearest health centre, what kind of information and health messages based on her perceptions and the Health Belief Model could you use?
According to the case study Demekech is a TB patient who has a 2-year old child and she is on anti-TB treatment.
If you want to apply the Health Belief Model in designing your health education sessions, the first step will be to identify the mother’s personal beliefs according to the concepts and assumptions of the HBM. Then construct your health messages based on the perceptions you have identified.
You could ask the mother the following questions that are developed according to the HBM:
- Do you believe that your child is susceptible to get TB infection? (perceived susceptibility)
- Do you believe that TB is a serious disease? (perceived severity)
- Do you believe that taking the child to a health centre for TB diagnosis is important to know his status and also to get anti-TB treatment for your child if this is necessary? (perceived benefits)
- Do you believe that your child can get the diagnosis and treatment of TB for free and there are no major problems to get the treatment or other services? (perceived barriers)
Then based on the answers that you get from the mother you can develop your health messages as follows:
- Your child is susceptible to get TB infection
- TB is a serious disease
- Please, take your child to a health centre for TB diagnosis and if he is found to be infected make sure that he takes his anti-TB treatment
- Your child can get the TB diagnosis and treatment for free.
SAQ 5.4 (tests Learning Outcome 5.5)
Imagine that you are trying to disseminate information on the importance of the proper utilisation of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in your community. If you are applying the theory of Diffusion of Innovations what kind of actions would you expect from a household headed by Ato Kedir in each of the following five stages of the Diffusion of Innovations?
If you are applying the theory of Diffusion of Innovations while designing your health education sessions for Ato Kedir and his family these might be the stages of the diffusion of innovations they are likely to be following:
- a.Knowledge: in this stage Ato Kedir and his family is exposed to an innovation but they lack information about the innovation. During this stage of the process they have not been inspired to find more information about the innovation.
- b.Persuasion: at this stage Ato Kedir and his family is interested in the innovation and actively seeks information and more details about the innovation.
- c.Decision: in this stage Ato Kedir and his family takes the concept of the innovation and they weigh the advantages and disadvantages of using the innovation — and whether to adopt or reject the innovation.
- d.Implementation: during this stage Ato Kedir and his family employs the innovation to a varying degree and they determine the usefulness of the innovation and then may search for further information about it.
- e.Confirmation: at this stage Ato Kedir and his family finalise their decision to continue using the innovation and may use the innovation to its fullest potential.
SAQ 5.5 (tests Learning Outcomes 5.1 and 5.5)
Suppose that you have planned and implemented health education programmes to disseminate information on the importance of the proper utilisation of ITNs in your community. Which of the community groups below are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards?
- a.Group I — started utilising ITN within the average time of diffusion
- b.Group II — first group of individuals to utilise ITN
- c.Group III — second fastest group to utilise ITN
- d.Group IV — the last group to utilise ITN
- e.Group V — started utilising ITN after the average members of the community had started to utilise ITN.
- a.Group I — started utilising ITN within the average time of diffusion — early adopters
- b.Group II — first group of individuals to utilise ITN — innovators
- c.Group III — second fastest group to utilise ITN — early majority
- d.Group IV — the last group to utilise ITN — laggards
- e.Group V — started utilising ITN after the average members of the community had started to utilise ITN — late majority.
Summary of Study Session 5