Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 1

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 1.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4)

Why is the IMNCI strategy so important for Ethiopia? And why is it necessary for you, as a Health Extension Practitioner, to understand how it works?


It is important because Ethiopia has a very high infant mortality rate. Most children die from pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles or malnutrition and the IMNCI strategy is a way of reducing these deaths. The way it does this is by bringing together all the different ways illnesses can be prevented and treated, in the home and the health centre. You need to understand how it works because you will be the person who will be using the strategy and explaining to parents the reasons for everything you do.(Don’t worry if you didn’t say this exactly — there are many ways of explaining your role within the strategy.)

SAQ 1.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1 and 1.3)

What are the four main steps you have to take each time a sick child is brought to you? Try to explain why each of these steps is essential and must not be missed out, using your own words.


The four main steps are assessment, classification, identify treatment and follow-up care.

Assessment is important in order to get an overall picture of the child’s health. Classification enables you to decide what exactly is wrong with the child. (This may include several illnesses.) Treatment is what will get the child better and may include referral to a hospital. And finally, follow-up is to ensure the child continues to improve.

Read Case Study 1.2 and then answer the questions that follow.

Case Study 1.2  Salem’s story

Salem is 15 months old. She weighs 8.5 kg. Her temperature is 38°C. She lives in a high malaria risk area. The health worker asked, ‘What are the child’s problems?’ The mother said, ‘Salem has been coughing for four days, and she is not eating well’. This is Salem’s initial visit for this problem. The health worker checked Salem for general danger signs. She asked, ‘Is Salem able to drink or breastfeed?’ The mother said, ‘No. Salem does not want to breastfeed’. The health worker gave Salem some water. She was too weak to lift her head. She was not able to drink from a cup. Next she asked the mother, ‘Is she vomiting?’ The mother said, ‘No’. Then she asked, ‘Has she had convulsions?’ The mother said, ‘No’. The health worker looked to see if Salem was convulsing or lethargic or unconscious. She was not convulsing but was lethargic.

SAQ 1.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1 and 1.4)

  • a.Does Salem have any danger signs? If so, what are they?
  • b.What do you need to do next and why?


  • a.Salem has the general danger signs of ‘not being able to feed’ and ‘lethargic and unconscious’.
  • b.You need to complete the rest of the IMNCI assessment and refer her urgently after giving the necessary pre-referral treatments for her classifications, including treatment to prevent low blood sugar.

Summary of Study Session 1