Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness Module: 9. Assessment of HIV Infection in Infants and Children

Study Session 9.  Assessment of HIV Infection in Infants and Children


Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan African countries that is hit hard by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Estimated HIV prevalence in the adult population is 2.4% (more than one million adults are living with HIV/AIDS). Currently an estimated 79,000 children under 14 years are living with HIV/AIDS. It is expected that more than 26,000 children require antiretroviral therapy (ART), but at the beginning of April 2009 only 10,077 children were receiving it. Without treatment 75% of all HIV-infected children will die before their fifth year.

The main way that children get HIV is from their HIV-infected mother. Not all HIV-infected mothers transmit the virus to their children. If 20 HIV-infected mothers give birth, only seven children will be HIV-infected (35%).

Children who are HIV-infected will have repeated other infections. Commonly occurring infections include pneumonia, persistent diarrhoea, ear discharge and oral thrush. The other common condition in HIV-infected children is malnutrition. You will learn about all of these in this study session.

Early identification of HIV infection in infants and children with ongoing follow-up and care can therefore help improve the quality of life of children who are HIV-infected. As a Health Extension Practitioner you have an important role in the identification and treatment of these children.

In this study session, you will learn how to assess and classify a child with possible HIV infection. The knowledge will help you to provide initial treatment, advice and referral of HIV cases.


You can download these files for use offline or on a mobile device.

The materials below are provided for offline use for your convenience and are not tracked. If you wish to save your progress, please go through the online version.

Learning Outcomes for Study Session 9