Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 11

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 11.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 11.1 and 11.3)

How should the way a child is fed change as he or she grows older? (Think about the kinds of foods a child will have, how much he will eat and also how he will eat.)


A baby up to six months old should if possible be breastfed exclusively. After six months breastfeeding may gradually stop and the child given replacement milk; or breastfeeding may continue up to the age of the two years if the child wants it.

After six months, a child should be given additional complementary foods. These should be semi-solid. But as the child gets older, he can start to eat the same as the rest of the family.

After six months the child should be encouraged to eat, at first with the help of other members of the family and, as he grows older, by himself. He should always have his own serving.

From breastfeeding at least eight times in 24 hours the infant will change to feeding five times a day; then by the age of two he needs just three main meals a day with snacks in between.

SAQ 11.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 11.1 and 11.2)

Are the feeding recommendations for a mother who is HIV-positive the same as for a mother who does not have HIV? Give reasons for your answer.


It is very similar except that there is even more emphasis on exclusive breastfeeding up to the age of six months if the mother has HIV. Also, the breastfeeding should continue if possible until 12–18 months alongside complementary feeding.

SAQ 11.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 11.2 and 11.4)

How would you go about assessing the way a mother breastfeeds? What kind of help might you be able to give the mother after your assessment?


You should first find out from the mother whether she thinks there are any problems and also ask her about frequency of feeding and whether the baby has any other foods .Then you need to observe her feeding the baby, for at least four minutes. This means looking at the position of the baby, how it attaches, and how it sucks. There should also be examination of the baby for white patches in the mouth.

The main help you can give the mother will be to give her advice about excusive and frequent breastfeeding. You can also help by teaching her the correct position for feeding so that the baby attaches well.

Summary of Study Session 11