1.4.6  External rotation (restitution)

After the head of the baby is born, there is a slight pause in the action of labour. During this pause, the baby must rotate so that his/her face moves from facing the mother’s backbone to facing either of her inner thighs (Figure 1.3, diagram 6). This movement is called external rotation because part of the baby is already outside the mother (it is also called restitution). The rotation is necessary as the baby’s shoulders must fit around and under the mother’s pubic bone.

1.4.7  Expulsion