8.4.1  Causes of face presentation

The causes of face presentation are similar to those already described for breech births:

  • Laxity (slackness) of the uterus after many previous full-term pregnancies
  • Multiple pregnancy
  • Polyhydramnios (excessive amniotic fluid)
  • Congenital abnormality of the fetus (e.g. anencephaly, which means no or incomplete skull bones)
  • Abnormal shape of the mother’s pelvis.

8.4  Face presentation

8.4.2  Diagnosis of face presentation