8.4.1 Causes of face presentation
The causes of face presentation are similar to those already described for breech births:
- Laxity (slackness) of the uterus after many previous full-term pregnancies
- Multiple pregnancy
- Polyhydramnios (excessive amniotic fluid)
- Congenital abnormality of the fetus (e.g. anencephaly, which means no or incomplete skull bones)
- Abnormal shape of the mother’s pelvis.